The main cause of diabetes is insufficient insulin secretion or insufficient sensitivity, so that the glucose in the blood cannot be converted into energy, thus the polysaccharide, will be accumulated, resulting in high blood glucose level, while the excess sugar will be excreted in urine. Hyperglycemia can cause acute and chronic complications.
If the blood sugar is too high and ketone is present in the body, the symptoms include vomiting, thirst, difficulty breathing and abdominal pain. Severe people may even be comatose and have a life-threatening emergency.
Long-term high blood sugar levels can cause blood vessels and nerves damages and affect organ functions. Diabetic patients may have one or more of the following complications:
Retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma – Diabetes is one of the main causes, and severe cases can lead to blindness. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness among people aged from 20 to 74. Patients are 25 times more likely to be blind than an average person.
Kidney disease – Diabetes is the most common causes of end-stage renal failure. About 20% to 40% of patients will develop kidney disease.
Heart disease and stroke – Patients have a higher chance of developing heart disease and stroke than an average person.
Nerves and peripheral blood vessels – The symptoms include calf pain, paralysis or ulceration of the feet. When the blood circulation is blocked, the ulcer is difficult to heal, and amputation may require in severe cases. Diabetes is the most common cause of non-traumatic truncation, and patients are 20 to 40 times more likely to have leg amputation than an average person.
Sexual dysfunction – As many as 10% of male diabetics have sexual dysfunction.